New technological process - lazer hydrobeam micrometallurgy.

   In Russia and other technically developed countries is designed different, in particular , lazer , methods of modifying a surface of metals for the reason raising the field-performance datas of details.

   In industry there are broadly used following methods : lazer hardening , lazer alloying , lazer chemist - a termal processing.

   However , under existing level of development of technology  lazer hardning , for instance , on variety of reasons not always can be used in lieu thereof traditional ways termal and chemist - a termal processing , particularly alloying of CHF.

   Studies in the field of lazer technological processes have find particularities of interaction of unceasing radiating  CO2 - lazers with liquids and with the surface of metal , base in the fluid technological ambience (1). Install that a side from the effect of shallow absorbing by the liquid of lazer radiating , exists one more characteristic . Essence its consists in that , that , as from a threshold values of density of power ( for water ~ 100000 Wt /cm × cm - refer to Pic.b ) , unceasing radiation forms stationary surfaces of section: liquid - vapour-gas condition or vapour-gas channels. Depth ( length ) these channels is straight proportional powers of radiation. Density of power on the depth of the vapor-gas channel stays within the threshold value , which for melting of the shallow layer metallic product sufficiently. So ,if you put of a product in any section of the vapor-gas channel ,it is possible realize local heating its up to melting in chemical actuate lazer radiating to the ambience.

   Physical essence of process lazer hydrobeam treatment consists in implantations of a ions alloying elements from the liquid in the melted lazer ray a surface of product in consequence of aquisition by them direct velocities of motion - a dynamic current along of the vapor-gas channel

( refer to **).

   High chemical activity of components of technological liquid is reached due to thermoionizing its components.

    As a result of implantations of active components in the area of high temperatures they form complex "frozen", in consequence of greatly more high velocities of coolling off in contrast with the air ambience , chemical join between itself and with components of metal of products.

   As technological liquids are to be used complex combinations a water solution of a salts aloying elements , required for forming carbonitrides and similar join (2).

   Using the technological liquids enlarges a factor of absorbing a radiating by the surface of processing product. Effect of increasing a shallow absorbing factor by the surface a product under ñëîåì liquids not only does an excessive additional using the absorb covering , but , as a rule , does not require a preliminary peelings of process surface and allows presence on her small contamination areas , oil films , small hearths of corrosion and ets.

   Under the direction of the author is designed ask , reliable and economical technological processes of lazer modifying a surface of details and cutting instrument to complex desksides , allowing vastly prolong their usages due to the high physicist - mechanical and physicist - chemical characteristics gain shallow layers .

   In (2) are brought photographies of microstructure of areas of surface of detail of cast iron engine after hydrobeam processing in the technological liquid , contain nitrogen and carbon.

   Developping technological processes of lazer modifying shallow layers  are base on micrometallurgical or chemist - a termal transformation shallow of the layers in technological liquids. They ensure a reception in the shallow layers of the carbides , carbonitrides and other wear resistance join beforehand given , little hang from source , chemical composition of metal with the possibility of using any combinations of elements from tables of Mendeleev.

   In contrast with known technologies of shallow hardning material (including and metalloids !) given method allows:

   process external and internal surfaces of details without changing a technological rig;

   get laminated structures of surfaces;

   restore sizes of details on the value before 100 mkm with pinpoint accuracy;

   perfect a quality of working surface of products;

   greatly reduce or exclude a volume of following mechanical processing.

   On the grounds of conducting test we have , that given technology ensures increasing of longevity of details alongside with perfecting corrodibility stability; possibility to usages the details under increased temperatures (under alloying of high-melting type elements Mo and Ti ); combining the processes mechanical and chemist - a termal processing; exception of need of preliminary fixing of absorb covering , as well as possibility is packed automations of processes.

    Production described technological process:

        for steel and cast iron forms from 40 before 160 mm mm /sec on each

0.5 KWt of the laser power of radiating CO2 lazer;

       for the high - melting metals and compositins - 8 - 40 -"-"--.

   Company , which presents an author realizes:

   consultations on questions of determination of economic practicability of using a lazer technology in concrete technological processes;

   search studies in the field of lazer technological processes (thermoprocessing , alloying , is sharp and ets) ;

   industrial technology development of processing the concrete details and material;

   designing and fabrication of technological rig and lazer complexes on technical requirements of customers.





                              (Photo® - Dr. Spivak A.V.,1991y.)

a -  the  stationary vapour - gas channel in pure water ; Power CO2 laser beam (P) - 100Wt , object distance of lens to the suface of water - 120mm ,

P/S = 1000Wt/cm · cm ; 
d - ---"---  --"-- P/S = 10000Wt/cm · cm ; 
b - ---"---  --"-- P/S = 100000Wt/cm · cm .